Recently I bought HP Spectre x360 Convertible that has a fantastic crisp 4K screen. Using CTRL+F1 (upto F6 usually) one can access console. With 4K screens now becoming available the default font size becomes really minute and one would need to increase it somehow. gnome-terminal provides shortcut SHIFT+CTRL and plus key (+) to increase font size when needed, or profiles which can be changed. But with console something more is necessary. Font used in the console is monospaced and is not the same as the tt or otf fonts used for document and browsers. In addition, there is also a limited selection fonts and sizes to choose from. So here is how to do that. Go to a console and login. Following command has to be run as root or using sudo.
sudo dpkg-reconfigure console-setup
Leave the first two screen settings as is. On third one you will see list of Font styles as Fixed, Terminus (and its variations), VGA and few others. Fixed is the default one and at least for me its biggest font size was still small for me. So I used VGA. Terminus looks fantastic but as the warning says it is not good for programming because of the way some of characters are represented. So select VGA and move to next screen. Select the biggest font and press enter. Within few seconds change will take effect. Try other font styles and sizes to suit your need.
It is imperative to run the application when developing it. You may be testing it, debugging it or troubleshooting something. By default Net-SNMP uses named socket for AgentX communication which does not allow a non-root user to connect making troubleshooting difficult. There are security reasons for not allowing this kind of widely open access so do not set this up in your production environment. There are other ways to control the access which I will narrate in future posts.
To enable AgentX and allow non-root applications/Agents to connect to snmpd you can setup TCP socket as follows. TCP socket provides a cleaner access and allows easier troubleshooting e.g you could capture network traffic between snmpd and the AgentX application. Update /etc/snmp/snmpd.conf and ensure that following directives are set for TCP based AgentX communication.
rocommunity public default # or whatever community string/access control you want
master agentx # Run as an AgentX master agent
agentXSocket tcp:localhost:705 # Listen for localhost network connections instead of /var/agentx/master
Restart snmpd (/etc/init.d/snmpd restart)
Alternate is to set correct permissions for /var/agentx/master named socket or whatever you have configured.
The button is not visible with shutdown and logout buttons. But by pressing ALT key the Shutdown button changes to Suspend/Pause button in Gnome3. No need to install a plugin to find it. Just a keystroke.
If both end-points of a socket are on local system, network traffic will be seen on loopback interface even if applications are using non-loopback interface (e.g. eth0, wlan0…). Capturing data over loopback is quite obvious. But here I am discussing that applications are using one of the external interfaces (e.g. eth0, eth1, wlan0 …..).
Since both end-points are on local system, kernel will shunt the traffic and not send it to the wire. The data will be delivered internally by queuing it to the read queue of other end-point. So we cannot capture the traffic on that particular interface, but this traffic is visible on loopback interface. Lets see an example.
I use netcat for setting up our test client and server program.
nc -kl 9090 will run server on all interfaces on port 9090. And
nc 10.1.1.100 9090 will setup a client. Here 10.1.1.100 is the external IP of my system(wlan0). Now instead of using the interface name associated with that IP (in my case wlan0), we have to use loopback interface
lo to capture the traffic as below.
tcpdump -i lo tcp port 9090
Now anything that is typed on the client terminal when sent will be seen by tcpdump. Problem solved.
/etc/udev/rules.d/70-persistent-net.rules defines the names for network interfaces. You can modify it, as long as you keep each rule on a single line, and change only the value of the NAME= key (as per the file). Continue reading “Rename network interface on ubuntu”
I moved to Ubuntu full-time a while back. See the first part Migrating from Windows to Linux. But VPN into my office from Linux remained an open issue because my organization uses Nortel Contivity. Ubuntu comes with vpn client but that does not work with Nortel. Then I found vpnc-nortel branch of vpnc open source project that can connect to Nortel vpn servers. In this series I will explain how to connect to Nortel VPN from Ubuntu. You may need to tweak few of these instructions for your favourite Linux version. I am on Ubuntu 11.10 x86_64, using vpnc version 0.5.3-481.
Continue reading “VPN : Connecting to Nortel VPN from Linux”
What would one need to move off of Windows in corporate world? A replacement for Microsoft Office Suit. Linux has LibreOffice as replacement for MS Word, Excel, Power Point etc. If you are a power user of these tools then it will be difficult to migrate to LibreOffice but hey that is a start. If for Outlook, your organization provides access via WebMail interface, then you are in clear with using any email client on Linux that supports Pop or IMAP by making use of DavMail. Though Evolution support a direct access to WebMail or even MAPI, but Evolution itself is very thick and sometimes slow. Then came out Ubuntu 11.10 which provides Thunderbird as the default email client with integration to desktop and Unity. Perfect.
Here is the list of replacements that are available on Linux. I will cover setup for DavMail and Thunderbird in another post. Continue reading “Migrating from Windows to Linux”
Linux provides a utility called runlevel but "who -r" is a portable solution which is available across various Unix types. Here is a brief explanation for both commands. This information is extracted from utmp file. Continue reading “How to find current runlevel on unix system”
Most often used flags for tcpdump and snoop are below. Snoop is for SunOS while tcpdump is available for mostly all Unix/Linux kinds. We will discuss filters in another post. And to read back and process the captured files, I use wireshark which provides lots of options to deep dive into the packet stream.
||Not needed if system has only one interface (ignoring localhost)
||Snap length controls how much to capture. Zero means capture all.
|Write capture to a file
|Avoid DNS lookups for IPs in capture
||So no DNS lookups are performed when displaying real-time capture, good for efficiency
Continue reading “Most often used Network Sniffer flags for tcpdump and snoop”
If you have auto installing packages there could be times when a cron job needs to be added. So the script has to be able to create new cron entries or delete old ones. One solution is to create temporary files in between to hold the other unaffected cron entries that are currently installed, add the new entry and then install this file using crontab. Creating of temporary files should be avoided in between as there are risks. So here is an elegant solution which uses piping in the output of multiple commands.
To remove already existing cron job (rdate for user unixite in example below) use a syntax like
crontab -l -u unixite | grep -v rdate | crontab -u unixite -
This pipe chain lists the existing crontab entries, removes any containing the string rdate, then reloads the resulting data by piping it back to crontab of user unixite. “-” is for reading from the stream or terminal (see Note below). No useless temporary file, no security risk.
To add new crontab entries Continue reading “bash : Automate add/modify/delete of cron jobs from a script”